Hello, today I wanted to introduce you photos school where I work for 15 years – Gimnazjum in Wielowieś bearing the name of Jan Paweł II.
In answer to your many comments asking for the continuation of difficult, but extremely mysterious and very extensive and interesting issues, which is undoubtedly our universe – decided to deepen their knowledge of quantum physics. I think that after reading my article, this knowledge will be helpful to us to understand the essence and energy transformation taking place in the Universe. Next articles will be published soon. And so to the point:
refers to the microscopic world – many the size is quantized, ie. occurs in integral multiples of some minimum portion, called quanta.
Quantum – the smallest unit that can be or which may change a physical quantity in a single event; for example : quantum angular momentum, time quantum, quantum energy, quantum of magnetic flux
In classical mechanics physical quantities may take, and therefore the change of any value. The microcircuit (e.g.. electrons in the atom) characteristics of some of the electrons can only assume certain values, and thus they may vary only of a certain size. So certain portions are called quanta. The behavior of the chip describes the department of physics – quantum mechanics
Quantum – a portion of the energy (or such. angular momentum), which can absorb or send physical chip (molecule, atom, nucleus, etc..). Following the issuance of the system is in a lower energy state, after absorption – in the upper (the energy levels).
In the case of the electromagnetic quantum of energy is called a photon and is equal to hv, where h – Planck’s constant, ν – the frequency of the emitted or absorbed electromagnetic wave.
The hypothesis of the quantum nature of the emission and absorption of radiation was formulated by M. Planck, gave the theory of A. Einstein.
At the end of the nineteenth century physics seemed to be already saturated newly discovered laws that govern nature and the whole universe. Scientists did not expect to have big news in your field. However, already in 1900 and subsequent years brought many surprising and downright phenomenal discoveries. They triggered the emergence and rapid development of a new field – quantum physics. Since its beginning shall be the date December 14, 1900, when the Max Planck hypothesized that the energy of light is not constant, but is sent and absorption in small portions. Portions were called quanta. Bearing in mind that property, Planck observed that the energy blackbody radiation can not be completely arbitrary, but it should be expressed as a multiple quantum energy. Ownership was called quantization.
The theory of quantum physics emerged in the twenties of this century. Here are the main points of this theory:
1. All the forces are generated by exchanging discrete packets of energy called quanta.
In quantum theory, light is divided into small portions called photons. Photons behave like point particles. When two electrons bump into each other, repel each other, not because of the curvature of space, but because the exchange portions of energy – photons.
2. Different forces are caused by the exchange of a variety of quantum
The weak interactions, take for example the share of particles called quanta W. Similarly, for the strong, persistent protons and neutrons inside the nucleus, is responsible exchange of elementary particles called mesons p.
Both bosons W and p mesons detected experimentally using accelerators.
3. We can never determine both the velocity and position of elementary particles.
Uncertainty principle e states that we can never be sure where an electron or what is its speed. The best we can do is calculate the probability that the electron will be in a certain place at a certain speed.
4. There is a finite probability that the particle – that will make a quantum leap, the impermeable barrier.
One of the simplest experiments that demonstrated the phenomenon of quantum tunneling begins by placing electrons in the box. Normally, the electron does not have sufficient energy to pass through the walls of the box. If classical physics is correct, the electron never leave him. According to quantum theory, but there is a probability that the electron wave will spread and will pass through the walls of the box into the world of quantum tunneling.Tunneling diode is used in the tunnel and in the majority of today’s electronic devices.
The particles present in the universe at the secondary cosmic rays: pions, muons, neutrinos, electrons and positrons, and components of the nucleus protons and neutrons – are commonly known elementary particles. Recently discovered a number of elementary particles, or variations thereof, such that out of the more than 200 known most of these particles have a very short half life and breaks down into other elementary particles. For example, as a result of interaction of nucleons and nuclei accelerated in accelerators, the p mesons produced subatomic particles called hyperons. These include hyperons: L (lambda) S (Sigma) X (ksi) at (omega), the weight is 2182 to 3278 times greater than the mass of the electron. Hyperons are very unstable and have an average lifetime of the order of 10-10 s. Due to the high probability of nucleons are counted together with them a group of elementary particles called baryons.
Each of the particle corresponds to antiparticle the rest mass, spin (own momentum) and an average life time is the same as that of the particles, and the electric charge has the same value but the opposite sign. Positron, which is the antiparticle of the electron is a particle sustained only in a vacuum, because in the presence of the electron, as a result of dissimilar electric charge particles attract each other and the contact they annihilate, ie. Converted into two photons of radiation.
In the years 1955 to 1956 were discovered antiproton and antyneutron that even after contact with their counterparts they annihilate even though both neutron and antyneutron are electrically indifference.
Antiprotons, antyneutrony and positrons can form atoms of antimatter. Based on the general assumption of symmetry in the Universe can be assumed that it is in the middle filled with just such antimatter.
At the finish today’s article, I greet all and a nice weekend – admin Regina
Na podstawie : pl.wikipedia.org portalwiedzy.onet.pl www.szkolnictwo.pl
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